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Artistic view of a Male Pteronarcys californica (Pteronarcyidae) (Giant Salmonfly) Stonefly Adult from the Gallatin River in Montana
Pteronarcys californica

The giant Salmonflies of the Western mountains are legendary for their proclivity to elicit consistent dry-fly action and ferocious strikes.

Lateral view of a Onocosmoecus (Limnephilidae) (Great Late-Summer Sedge) Caddisfly Larva from the Yakima River in Washington
This specimen keys pretty easily to Onocosmoecus, and it closely resembles a specimen from Alaska which caddis expert Dave Ruiter recognized as this genus. As with that specimen, the only species in the genus documented in this area is Onocosmoecus unicolor, but Dave suggested for that specimen that there might be multiple not-yet-distinguished species under the unicolor umbrella and it would be best to stick with the genus-level ID. I'm doing the same for this one.
27" brown trout, my largest ever. It was the sub-dominant fish in its pool. After this, I hooked the bigger one, but I couldn't land it.
Troutnut is a project started in 2003 by salmonid ecologist Jason "Troutnut" Neuswanger to help anglers and fly tyers unabashedly embrace the entomological side of the sport. Learn more about Troutnut or support the project for an enhanced experience here.

This topic is about the Caddisfly Genus Brachycentrus

This prolific genus includes the popular eastern early-season Apple Caddis and Grannom hatches. Their life cycles are ideal for the fly angler, and every stage is frequent trout prey.

Note that this species changes color dramatically after it emerges, and imitations of egg-laying adults should be a different color from imitations of emergers. Emergers have pale blonde, almost off-white wings and bright green bodies, while the egg-laying adults have light brownish gray wings and medium green bodies.

Example specimens

Taxon's profile picture
Site Editor
Plano, TX

Posts: 1311
Taxon on Jun 11, 2008June 11th, 2008, 5:12 am EDT
I was wondering if there is a sight that has the species list for streams in Pa?


Ask, and Ye Shall Receive, but Be careful what you ask for:

Family Genus Species
Apataniidae Apatania blacki
Apataniidae Apatania incerta
Apataniidae Apatania nigra
Beraeidae Beraea fontana
Beraeidae Beraea nigritta
Brachycentridae Adicrophleps hitchcocki
Brachycentridae Brachycentrus incanus
Brachycentridae Brachycentrus lateralis
Brachycentridae Brachycentrus nigrosoma
Brachycentridae Brachycentrus numerosus
Brachycentridae Brachycentrus solomoni
Brachycentridae Micrasema charonis
Brachycentridae Micrasema rusticum
Brachycentridae Micrasema sprulesi
Brachycentridae Micrasema wataga
Calamoceratidae Heteroplectron americanum
Dipseudopsidae Phylocentropus lucidus
Dipseudopsidae Phylocentropus placidus
Glossosomatidae Agapetus iridis
Glossosomatidae Agapetus minutus
Glossosomatidae Agapetus pinatus
Glossosomatidae Agapetus rossi
Glossosomatidae Agapetus tomus
Glossosomatidae Glossosoma intermedium
Glossosomatidae Glossosoma nigrior
Glossosomatidae Protoptila maculata
Glossosomatidae Protoptila palina
Goeridae Goera calcarata
Goeridae Goera fuscula
Goeridae Goera stylata
Goeridae Goerita betteni
Helicopsychidae Helicopsyche borealis
Hydropsychidae Ceratopsyche alhedra
Hydropsychidae Ceratopsyche alternans
Hydropsychidae Ceratopsyche bronta
Hydropsychidae Ceratopsyche cheilonis
Hydropsychidae Ceratopsyche morosa
Hydropsychidae Ceratopsyche slossonae
Hydropsychidae Ceratopsyche sparna
Hydropsychidae Ceratopsyche ventura
Hydropsychidae Ceratopsyche walkeri
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche analis
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche aphanta
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche campyla
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche ela
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche geora
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche gracilis
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche gyra
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche halima
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche harwoodi
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche helma
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche lasia
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche minuscula
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche oxa
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche pasella
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche pinaca
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche sordida
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche speciosa
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche vannotei
Hydropsychidae Cheumatopsyche wrighti
Hydropsychidae Diplectrona metaqui
Hydropsychidae Diplectrona modesta
Hydropsychidae Homoplectra monticola
Hydropsychidae Hydropsyche betteni
Hydropsychidae Hydropsyche brunneipennis
Hydropsychidae Hydropsyche confusa
Hydropsychidae Hydropsyche dicantha
Hydropsychidae Hydropsyche hageni
Hydropsychidae Hydropsyche impula
Hydropsychidae Hydropsyche leonardi
Hydropsychidae Hydropsyche opthalmica
Hydropsychidae Hydropsyche orris
Hydropsychidae Hydropsyche phalerata
Hydropsychidae Hydropsyche placoda
Hydropsychidae Hydropsyche scalaris
Hydropsychidae Hydropsyche valanis
Hydropsychidae Hydropsyche venularis
Hydropsychidae Macrostemum carolina
Hydropsychidae Macrostemum zebratum
Hydropsychidae Parapsyche apicalis
Hydropsychidae Potamyia flava
Hydroptilidae Agraylea multipunctata
Hydroptilidae Dibusa angata
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila ajax
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila alabama
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila amoena
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila ampoda
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila angusta
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila antennopedia
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila armata
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila callia
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila chattanooga
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila consimilis
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila delineata
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila dentata
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila fiskei
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila grandiosa
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila gunda
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila hamata
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila jackmanni
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila metoeca
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila parachelops
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila perdita
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila quinola
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila remita
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila rono
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila spatulata
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila spinata
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila strepha
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila talladega
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila waskesia
Hydroptilidae Hydroptila waubesiana
Hydroptilidae Ithytrichia clavata
Hydroptilidae Leucotrichia pictipes
Hydroptilidae Mayatrichia ayama
Hydroptilidae Neotrichia okopa
Hydroptilidae Ochrotrichia confusa
Hydroptilidae Ochrotrichia denningi
Hydroptilidae Ochrotrichia graysoni
Hydroptilidae Ochrotrichia potomus
Hydroptilidae Ochrotrichia shawnee
Hydroptilidae Ochrotrichia spinosa
Hydroptilidae Ochrotrichia tarsalis
Hydroptilidae Ochrotrichia wojcickyi
Hydroptilidae Orthotrichia aegerfasciella
Hydroptilidae Orthotrichia cristata
Hydroptilidae Oxyethira aeola
Hydroptilidae Oxyethira anabola
Hydroptilidae Oxyethira dualis
Hydroptilidae Oxyethira forcipata
Hydroptilidae Oxyethira grisea
Hydroptilidae Oxyethira michiganensis
Hydroptilidae Oxyethira pallida
Hydroptilidae Oxyethira rivicola
Hydroptilidae Oxyethira sida
Hydroptilidae Oxyethira zeronia
Hydroptilidae Stactobiella delira
Hydroptilidae Stactobiella martynovi
Hydroptilidae Stactobiella palmata
Lepidostomatidae Lepidostoma americanum
Lepidostomatidae Lepidostoma bryanti
Lepidostomatidae Lepidostoma carrolli
Lepidostomatidae Lepidostoma costale
Lepidostomatidae Lepidostoma frosti
Lepidostomatidae Lepidostoma griseum
Lepidostomatidae Lepidostoma latipenne
Lepidostomatidae Lepidostoma lydia
Lepidostomatidae Lepidostoma ontario
Lepidostomatidae Lepidostoma pictile
Lepidostomatidae Lepidostoma sackeni
Lepidostomatidae Lepidostoma sommermanae
Lepidostomatidae Lepidostoma togatum
Lepidostomatidae Lepidostoma vernale
Lepidostomatidae Theliopsyche grisea
Leptoceridae Ceraclea alabamae
Leptoceridae Ceraclea alagma
Leptoceridae Ceraclea albosticta
Leptoceridae Ceraclea ancylus
Leptoceridae Ceraclea cancellata
Leptoceridae Ceraclea diluta
Leptoceridae Ceraclea flava
Leptoceridae Ceraclea maculata
Leptoceridae Ceraclea mentiea
Leptoceridae Ceraclea punctata
Leptoceridae Ceraclea resurgens
Leptoceridae Ceraclea ruthae
Leptoceridae Ceraclea slossonae
Leptoceridae Ceraclea tarsipunctata
Leptoceridae Ceraclea transversa
Leptoceridae Ceraclea uvalo
Leptoceridae Ceraclea wetzeli
Leptoceridae Leptocerus americanus
Leptoceridae Mystacides interjectus
Leptoceridae Mystacides sepulchralis
Leptoceridae Nectopsyche albida
Leptoceridae Nectopsyche candida
Leptoceridae Nectopsyche exquisita
Leptoceridae Oecetis avara
Leptoceridae Oecetis cinerascens
Leptoceridae Oecetis ditissa
Leptoceridae Oecetis eddlestoni
Leptoceridae Oecetis immobilis
Leptoceridae Oecetis inconspicua
Leptoceridae Oecetis nocturna
Leptoceridae Oecetis osteni
Leptoceridae Oecetis persimilis
Leptoceridae Oecetis scala
Leptoceridae Setodes guttatus
Leptoceridae Setodes incertus
Leptoceridae Setodes oligius
Leptoceridae Setodes oxapius
Leptoceridae Triaenodes aba
Leptoceridae Triaenodes baris
Leptoceridae Triaenodes dipsius
Leptoceridae Triaenodes flavescens
Leptoceridae Triaenodes ignitus
Leptoceridae Triaenodes injustus
Leptoceridae Triaenodes marginatus
Leptoceridae Triaenodes nox
Leptoceridae Triaenodes perna
Leptoceridae Triaenodes tardus
Limnephilidae Anabolia bimaculata
Limnephilidae Anabolia consocia
Limnephilidae Frenesia difficilis
Limnephilidae Frenesia missa
Limnephilidae Glyphopsyche irrorata
Limnephilidae Hesperophylax designatus
Limnephilidae Ironoquia lyrata
Limnephilidae Ironoquia parvula
Limnephilidae Ironoquia punctatissima
Limnephilidae Limnephilus indivisus
Limnephilidae Limnephilus moestus
Limnephilidae Limnephilus ornatus
Limnephilidae Limnephilus rhombicus
Limnephilidae Limnephilus sericeus
Limnephilidae Limnephilus submonilifer
Limnephilidae Nemotaulius hostilis
Limnephilidae Platycentropus radiatus
Limnephilidae Pseudostenophylax sparsus
Limnephilidae Psychoglypha subborealis
Limnephilidae Pycnopsyche antica
Limnephilidae Pycnopsyche circularis
Limnephilidae Pycnopsyche conspersa
Limnephilidae Pycnopsyche divergens
Limnephilidae Pycnopsyche gentilis
Limnephilidae Pycnopsyche guttifera
Limnephilidae Pycnopsyche lepida
Limnephilidae Pycnopsyche luculenta
Limnephilidae Pycnopsyche scabripennis
Limnephilidae Pycnopsyche subfasciata
Molannidae Molanna blenda
Molannidae Molanna flavicornis
Molannidae Molanna tryphena
Molannidae Molanna ulmerina
Molannidae Molanna uniophila
Odontoceridae Psilotreta frontalis
Odontoceridae Psilotreta indecisa
Odontoceridae Psilotreta labida
Odontoceridae Psilotreta rufa
Philopotamidae Chimarra aterrima
Philopotamidae Chimarra obscura
Philopotamidae Chimarra socia
Philopotamidae Wormaldia moesta
Philopotamidae Wormaldia shawnee
Phryganeidae Agrypnia vestita
Phryganeidae Banksiola crotchi
Phryganeidae Banksiola dossuaria
Phryganeidae Oligostomis ocelligera
Phryganeidae Oligostomis pardalis
Phryganeidae Phryganea cinerea
Phryganeidae Phryganea sayi
Phryganeidae Ptilostomis ocellifera
Phryganeidae Ptilostomis postica
Phryganeidae Ptilostomis semifasciata
Polycentropodidae Cyrnellus fraternus
Polycentropodidae Neureclipsis bimaculata
Polycentropodidae Neureclipsis crepuscularis
Polycentropodidae Nyctiophylax affinis
Polycentropodidae Nyctiophylax banksi
Polycentropodidae Nyctiophylax celta
Polycentropodidae Nyctiophylax denningi
Polycentropodidae Nyctiophylax moestus
Polycentropodidae Nyctiophylax nephophilus
Polycentropodidae Nyctiophylax uncus
Polycentropodidae Polycentropus carolinensis
Polycentropodidae Polycentropus centralis
Polycentropodidae Polycentropus cinereus
Polycentropodidae Polycentropus clinei
Polycentropodidae Polycentropus colei
Polycentropodidae Polycentropus confusus
Polycentropodidae Polycentropus crassicornis
Polycentropodidae Polycentropus elarus
Polycentropodidae Polycentropus flavus
Polycentropodidae Polycentropus interruptus
Polycentropodidae Polycentropus maculatus
Polycentropodidae Polycentropus nascotius
Polycentropodidae Polycentropus pentus
Polycentropodidae Polycentropus pixi
Polycentropodidae Polycentropus remotus
Polycentropodidae Polycentropus rickeri
Psychomyiidae Lype diversa
Psychomyiidae Psychomyia flavida
Psychomyiidae Psychomyia nomada
Ptilocolepidae Palaeagapetus celsus
Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila atrata
Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila banksi
Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila brunnea
Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila carolina
Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila carpenteri
Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila formosa
Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila fuscula
Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila glaberrima
Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila invaria
Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila ledra
Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila lobifera
Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila mainensis
Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila manistee
Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila nigrita
Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila otica
Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila torva
Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila vibox
Sericostomatidae Agarodes griseus
Uenoidae Neophylax aniqua
Uenoidae Neophylax concinnus
Uenoidae Neophylax consimilis
Uenoidae Neophylax delicatus
Uenoidae Neophylax fuscus
Uenoidae Neophylax mitchelli
Uenoidae Neophylax oligius
Uenoidae Neophylax ornatus
Uenoidae Neophylax stolus
Uenoidae Neophylax wigginsi
Best regards,
Roger Rohrbeck
Hollidaysburg Pa

Posts: 251
LittleJ on Jun 11, 2008June 11th, 2008, 7:08 am EDT
Grants Pass, OR

Posts: 302
Creno on Jun 11, 2008June 11th, 2008, 10:10 am EDT
Here is another nice site for PA

Martinlf's profile picture
Palmyra PA

Posts: 3047
Martinlf on Jun 11, 2008June 11th, 2008, 11:13 am EDT
Now I realize why I can't figure out those darn downwings!
"He spread them a yard and a half. 'And every one that got away is this big.'"

--Fred Chappell
Milton, DE

Posts: 82
Flybyknight on Jun 11, 2008June 11th, 2008, 2:19 pm EDT
Compounding my inability to produce any two ties that look exactly the same, is also determining what tie to fish in the first place. Its called "pattern anxiety"

Lightly on the dimpling eddy fling;
the hypocritic fly's unruffled wing.
Thomas Scott
Catawissa, PA

Posts: 3
Bobv96 on Jun 12, 2008June 12th, 2008, 1:54 am EDT
Thanks . . . I think. Wow! I think I am going to have to go to plan B when it comes to identifying the most popular Caddis hatches on Pine Creek (that would be the plan where I divorce my wife and marry an entomologist.

Thanks again for the list and the great site!
Site Editor
"Bear Swamp," PA

Posts: 1681
GONZO on Jun 12, 2008June 12th, 2008, 5:20 am EDT

Keep the wife. Most entomologists are happy to help without the offer of marriage. :)

If you eliminate the species not found in the Pine and those that are uncommon or don't usually provide much fishing opportunity, the list becomes much more manageable. Here's a start:

Pine Creek Caddisflies (approximate hatching sequence)

Early Smoky Wing Sedge (Apatania incerta)--April.

Grannom/Apple Caddis (Brachycentrus appalachia)--late April/early May, usually one of the most important early hatches.

Little Black Sedges (Chimarra spp.)--May.

Spotted Sedges (Hydropsyche/Ceratopsyche spp.)--these are among the most significant caddisfly hatches through much of the season, but C. bronta and C. sparna are particularly important from early to mid-May (during the "mayfly lull" between the Hendricksons and the early Sulphurs).

Little Sister Sedges (Cheumatopsyche spp.)--can be important from May through July.

Dark Blue Sedges (Psilotreta frontalis and labida)--end of May into early June, often hatching around and after the Green Drakes.

Green Sedges (Rhyacophila spp.)--can be important from late May through July (R. fuscula is often seen in early July). Imitating the "green rockworms" (larvae) can be useful through much of the season.

Summer Slow-Water Sedges (mostly Leptoceridae)--the Black Dancers (Mystacides spp.), Scaly Wing Sedges (Ceraclea spp.), and Long-Horn Sedges (Oecetis spp.) often contribute to a confusing conglomeration of mid- to late summer activity. Some, like the Black Dancers, may emerge in the morning, but the most conspicuous activity is the combined emergence/mating/egg-laying in the evening. I often see Dolophilodes in this mix (not a leptocerid, and known as the Black Gold-Spotted Sedge or Medium Evening Sedge). For me, this is the most frustrating and diverse caddisfly activity of the season.

Great Brown Autumn Sedge (Pycnopsyche spp.)--second half of September through October.

Autumn Mottled Sedge (Neophylax spp.)--late September through October.

There are other caddisflies that might be significant on occasion, but this basic list should help you prepare for the most common and important hatches on the Pine.

Catawissa, PA

Posts: 3
Bobv96 on Jun 12, 2008June 12th, 2008, 2:56 pm EDT
Thanks Gonzo! Great break down and awesome information. You just saved my marrage :)!!!!!!!!
Site Editor
"Bear Swamp," PA

Posts: 1681
GONZO on Jun 12, 2008June 12th, 2008, 3:32 pm EDT
Happy to help, Bob. Any fly fisherman with a wife who tolerates him should try to keep her! :)
Grants Pass, OR

Posts: 302
Creno on Jun 12, 2008June 12th, 2008, 3:58 pm EDT
Bobv96 - Don't be too concerned, I have found my wife tolerates caddis taxonomy vastly more than the fishing. It seems with fishing I spend much more time with highly questionable individuals, leaving early in the morning and returning, maybe, late at night - smelling of who knows what. Taxonomy, while suspect, is much more sedentary and she finds the most enjoyable taxonomists merely odd.

And so I collect caddis - often with a rod under all the various paraphernalia. And remember, both occur in the same pretty places I, and fortunately she, like to go.
Schuylkill County, PA.

Posts: 109
Quillgordon on Jun 13, 2008June 13th, 2008, 6:14 am EDT

And so I collect caddis - often with a rod under all the various paraphernalia. And remember, both occur in the same pretty places I, and fortunately she, likes to go.
It doesn't get much better than that................
* If it weren't for caddis; I wouldn't catch any fish! LOL.

Flyfishing is a state of mind! .............. Q.g.

Martinlf's profile picture
Palmyra PA

Posts: 3047
Martinlf on Apr 4, 2015April 4th, 2015, 11:01 am EDT
Here's a very thorough Grannom page. Please forgive my past ignorance that is revealed in these threads. Not that I'm all that less ignorant today. But the threads are full of good Grannom information from others, and it'll be that time soon in PA.
"He spread them a yard and a half. 'And every one that got away is this big.'"

--Fred Chappell
Posts: 1
Farmeloj on Oct 25, 2015October 25th, 2015, 6:37 pm EDT
PA for prince albert or Pennsylvania eh!
Wbranch's profile picture
York & Starlight PA

Posts: 2635
Wbranch on Feb 1, 2016February 1st, 2016, 5:25 am EST
Oh no!! not the dreaded Grannom again. It's funny how many thousands of words have been written, and posted, about that one bug on this forum. I often wonder why we have never discussed other bugs, like the March Brown, or Green Drake, in as much detail?
Catskill fly fisher for fifty-five years.
Crepuscular's profile picture
Boiling Springs, PA

Posts: 920
Crepuscular on Feb 1, 2016February 1st, 2016, 5:45 am EST
Oh no!! not the dreaded Grannom again. It's funny how many thousands of words have been written, and posted, about that one bug on this forum.

It's not just one bug, but several species that fall under the moniker of a Grannom. Maybe that's why...
Wbranch's profile picture
York & Starlight PA

Posts: 2635
Wbranch on Feb 1, 2016February 1st, 2016, 6:49 am EST
It's not just one bug, but several species that fall under the moniker of a Grannom. Maybe that's why...

I'm well aware of that but I guess my attempt at droll humor eluded you.
Catskill fly fisher for fifty-five years.
Martinlf's profile picture
Palmyra PA

Posts: 3047
Martinlf on Feb 1, 2016February 1st, 2016, 8:36 am EST
Matt, I do think it would be great to see some new threads on other bugs. We have some good stuff on Green Drakes, but not so much on March Browns. I'm hoping the new "best of the forum" thread will at least give quick access to some of the best bug threads, then we can perhaps focus on some that are neglected.
"He spread them a yard and a half. 'And every one that got away is this big.'"

--Fred Chappell

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