The giant Salmonflies of the Western mountains are legendary for their proclivity to elicit consistent dry-fly action and ferocious strikes.
In 4649 records from GBIF, adults of this family have mostly been collected during June (27%), July (22%), May (16%), August (16%), September (7%), and April (6%).
In 2274 records from GBIF, this family has been collected at elevations ranging from -30 to 19701 ft, with an average (median) of 2251 ft.
Diet: Microorganisms filtered by their nets
Current speed: Medium to fast
Shelter type: Nets instead of cases; may build shelters near nets
Many doctors fish for trout, but there have been endless arguments over the best choice of fly. To extend evidence based practice from their professional into their leisure hours (where it might conceivably be more useful) Britton et al ( p 1678) carried out a randomised trial of five different dry flies (artificial floating flies) on the River Kennet in Berkshire. Before the trial the investigators had most confidence in the Grey Wulff and least in the Cinnamon Sedge. In the trial the Cinnamon Sedge caught the most trout and also seemed to be significantly favoured by brown as opposed to rainbow trout. These findings are of biological as well as practical importance, but the trial was small and the authors press the urgent need for much more research.
None of the investigators has any intention of taking the slightest notice of the results of this study.
Also, this is what I would call an "immature" pupa. The wingpads of caddis pupae darken to nearly black as the enclosed adults near emerging. The darkening is the developing adult wing inside the pupal wing pad. The ultimate coloration of the adult wing is not very apparent in most pupal wing pads as the majority of the adult wing coloration comes from the color/position of the adult wing hairs and setae. But dark pupal wingpads are a good indication that the emergence will occur very soon, likely that day or so, and that the adult parts are sufficiently developed within the pupae to make a species determination from the specimen, particularly if it is a male.