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Artistic view of a Male Pteronarcys californica (Pteronarcyidae) (Giant Salmonfly) Stonefly Adult from the Gallatin River in Montana
Salmonflies
Pteronarcys californica

The giant Salmonflies of the Western mountains are legendary for their proclivity to elicit consistent dry-fly action and ferocious strikes.

Dorsal view of a Grammotaulius betteni (Limnephilidae) (Northern Caddisfly) Caddisfly Larva from the Yakima River in Washington
This is a striking caddis larva with an interesting color pattern on the head. Here are some characteristics I was able to see under the microscope, but could not easily expose for a picture:
- The prosternal horn is present.
- The mandible is clearly toothed, not formed into a uniform scraper blade.
- The seems to be only 2 major setae on the ventral edge of the hind femur.
- Chloride epithelia seem to be absent from the dorsal side of any abdominal segments.
Based on these characteristics and the ones more easily visible from the pictures, this seems to be Grammotaulius. The key's description of the case is spot-on: "Case cylindrical, made of longitudinally arranged sedge or similar leaves," as is the description of the markings on the head, "Dorsum of head light brownish yellow with numerous discrete, small, dark spots." The spot pattern on the head is a very good match to figure 19.312 of Merritt R.W., Cummins, K.W., and Berg, M.B. (2019). The species ID is based on Grammotaulius betteni being the only species of this genus known in Washington state.
27" brown trout, my largest ever. It was the sub-dominant fish in its pool. After this, I hooked the bigger one, but I couldn't land it.
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This topic is about the Insect Order Trichoptera

Some say caddisflies are even more important than mayflies, and they are probably right. The angling world has taken a while to come to terms with this blasphemy. Caddis imitations are close to receiving their fare share of time on the end of the tippet, but too many anglers still assume all caddisflies are pretty much the same.

Caddis species actually provide as much incentive to learn their specifics as the mayflies do. There is just as much variety in their emergence and egg-laying behaviors, and as many patterns and techniques are needed to match them. Anglers are hampered only by the relative lack of information about caddisfly behavior and identification.

Example specimens

Dryfly
rochester mn

Posts: 133
Dryfly on Dec 18, 2009December 18th, 2009, 3:27 pm EST
I have a basic understanding of caddis fly IDing when it comes to the larva, but how do you tell the adults apart. You can never have enough useless bug knowledge. :)
Creno
Grants Pass, OR

Posts: 302
Creno on Dec 18, 2009December 18th, 2009, 3:51 pm EST
from a fishers perspective start with Thomas Ames' new book Caddisflies. If that is not enough for ya let me know and I will find whatever is good at that time. Depending on what you want you may not need any more than Ames' book.
creno
Dryfly
rochester mn

Posts: 133
Dryfly on Dec 18, 2009December 18th, 2009, 5:10 pm EST
Thanks
Creno
Grants Pass, OR

Posts: 302
Creno on Dec 19, 2009December 19th, 2009, 4:56 am EST
If you would rather use a pc than paper, here is an interesting approach I forgot about. http://www.entomology.umn.edu/museum/projects/keys/
Ralph Holzenthal's UofMN site has lots of other useful information for folks interested in caddis and is updated fairly frequently.

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