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Lateral view of a Female Hexagenia limbata (Ephemeridae) (Hex) Mayfly Dun from the Namekagon River in Wisconsin
Hex Mayflies
Hexagenia limbata

The famous nocturnal Hex hatch of the Midwest (and a few other lucky locations) stirs to the surface mythically large brown trout that only touch streamers for the rest of the year.

Lateral view of a Onocosmoecus (Limnephilidae) (Great Late-Summer Sedge) Caddisfly Larva from the Yakima River in Washington
This specimen keys pretty easily to Onocosmoecus, and it closely resembles a specimen from Alaska which caddis expert Dave Ruiter recognized as this genus. As with that specimen, the only species in the genus documented in this area is Onocosmoecus unicolor, but Dave suggested for that specimen that there might be multiple not-yet-distinguished species under the unicolor umbrella and it would be best to stick with the genus-level ID. I'm doing the same for this one.
27" brown trout, my largest ever. It was the sub-dominant fish in its pool. After this, I hooked the bigger one, but I couldn't land it.
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Apple Caddis and Grannoms

This common name refers to only one family. Click its scientific name to learn more.

Caddisfly Family Brachycentridae

These are pretty much always called Apple Caddis and Grannoms.
Brachycentrus is one of the most important caddisfly genera in America. Microsema is smaller and rarely, if ever, significant. Amiocentrus aspilus can be an important Western hatch.
Lateral view of a Brachycentrus appalachia (Brachycentridae) (Apple Caddis) Caddisfly Adult from the West Branch of the Delaware River in New York
I captured this specimen in the same color as this photograph, during its egg-laying flight. The emergers are much lighter.
Case view of a Brachycentrus americanus (Brachycentridae) (American Grannom) Caddisfly Larva from the Yakima River in Washington
This species of Brachycentrus was extremely common in mid-September kick net samples in the Yakima canyon.
Dorsal view of a Brachycentrus (Brachycentridae) (Grannom) Caddisfly Pupa from Cayuta Creek in New York
The green blob contained in this case is a pupa in the early stages of transformation from larva to the final stage we generally picture and imitate. This specimen and several like it were fixed to a rock I picked up, and each one had the front of its case sealed off, protecting the helpless pupa from predation. It's neat to see the insect part-way through such a radical transformation.

It was very hard to extract this thing from its case, so there's a bit of extra goo near the head from where I accidentally punctured it.

Apple Caddis and Grannoms

Scientific Name
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