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Artistic view of a Male Pteronarcys californica (Pteronarcyidae) (Giant Salmonfly) Stonefly Adult from the Gallatin River in Montana
Salmonflies
Pteronarcys californica

The giant Salmonflies of the Western mountains are legendary for their proclivity to elicit consistent dry-fly action and ferocious strikes.

Dorsal view of a Ephemerella mucronata (Ephemerellidae) Mayfly Nymph from the Yakima River in Washington
This is an interesting one. Following the keys in Merritt R.W., Cummins, K.W., and Berg, M.B. (2019) and Jacobus et al. (2014), it keys clearly to Ephemerella. Jacobus et al provide a key to species, but some of the characteristics are tricky to interpret without illustrations. If I didn't make any mistakes, this one keys to Ephemerella mucronata, which has not previously been reported any closer to here than Montana and Alberta. The main character seems to fit well: "Abdominal terga with prominent, paired, subparallel, spiculate ridges." Several illustrations or descriptions of this holarctic species from the US and Europe seem to match, including the body length, tarsal claws and denticles, labial palp, and gill shapes. These sources include including Richard Allen's original description of this species in North America under the now-defunct name E. moffatae in Allen RK (1977) and the figures in this description of the species in Italy.
27" brown trout, my largest ever. It was the sub-dominant fish in its pool. After this, I hooked the bigger one, but I couldn't land it.
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Male Epeorus vitreus (Heptageniidae) (Sulphur) Mayfly Dun from the Beaverkill River in New York
This is my favorite mayfly from 2004, and it appears on my popular Be the Trout: Eat Mayflies products. Check them out!

Its identification is really up in the air. It might be a late-season vitreus dun but it may very well be one of the more obscure species in that genus.
Troutnut
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Bellevue, WA

Posts: 2758
Troutnut on Jul 2, 2006July 2nd, 2006, 4:49 pm EDT
This is one of my favorite specimens from the old site pictures. I collected it in early September during a fishable hatch of its kind on a smooth, deep pool on the Beaverkill.

The eyes seem nearly contiguous, the first two segments of the fore tarsi are of equal length, and the wings are unmarked, all of which suggest Epeorus. From the above/side picture I can see that the basal costal crossveins do not slant upward as they should with Epeorus, although the main side view seems to maybe show that. I wish I had a better camera when I photographed this one.

It also pretty strongly resembles the E. vitreus dun shown in Ted Fauceglia's book, Mayflies. It clearly does not match the E. vitreus dun pictured on Color Plate XII of Hatches II, but it looks like the unidentifeid eastern Epeorus species on Color Plate XIII of the same book.

By some accounts, there does not seem to be a common eastern species of Epeorus hatching this late, but other books show it on the tail end of the emergence times for Epeorus vitreus. So that's my best guess for now.
Jason Neuswanger, Ph.D.
Troutnut and salmonid ecologist
GONZO
Site Editor
"Bear Swamp," PA

Posts: 1681
GONZO on Oct 28, 2008October 28th, 2008, 8:15 am EDT
The little dark marks on the posterior part of the tergites and the dark humeral vein seem consistent with a vitreus ID.

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