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Lateral view of a Male Baetis (Baetidae) (Blue-Winged Olive) Mayfly Dun from Mystery Creek #43 in New York
Blue-winged Olives
Baetis

Tiny Baetis mayflies are perhaps the most commonly encountered and imitated by anglers on all American trout streams due to their great abundance, widespread distribution, and trout-friendly emergence habits.

Dorsal view of a Grammotaulius betteni (Limnephilidae) (Northern Caddisfly) Caddisfly Larva from the Yakima River in Washington
This is a striking caddis larva with an interesting color pattern on the head. Here are some characteristics I was able to see under the microscope, but could not easily expose for a picture:
- The prosternal horn is present.
- The mandible is clearly toothed, not formed into a uniform scraper blade.
- The seems to be only 2 major setae on the ventral edge of the hind femur.
- Chloride epithelia seem to be absent from the dorsal side of any abdominal segments.
Based on these characteristics and the ones more easily visible from the pictures, this seems to be Grammotaulius. The key's description of the case is spot-on: "Case cylindrical, made of longitudinally arranged sedge or similar leaves," as is the description of the markings on the head, "Dorsum of head light brownish yellow with numerous discrete, small, dark spots." The spot pattern on the head is a very good match to figure 19.312 of Merritt R.W., Cummins, K.W., and Berg, M.B. (2019). The species ID is based on Grammotaulius betteni being the only species of this genus known in Washington state.
27" brown trout, my largest ever. It was the sub-dominant fish in its pool. After this, I hooked the bigger one, but I couldn't land it.
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Grizzly Quills

This common name refers to only one genus. Click its scientific name to learn more.

Mayfly Genus Callibaetis

These are often called Grizzly Quills.
The speckle winged Callibaetis genus contains on average the largest species in the Baetidae family with hatches ranging in size from 20 to 12 (6mm to 12mm). However, most can be matched with 14 and 16 imitations. They reside only in very slow weedy sections of rivers or lakes and ponds.

The most important are the sub-species Callibaetis ferrugineus ferrugineus in the East and Midwest and Callibaetis ferrugineus hageni in the West. It is in the West however, where this genus achieves its densest populations and most significant hatches. Other important western species also happen to be at both sides of the size scale. The outsized Callibaetis californicus can produce excellent hatches. The diminutive Callibaetis pictus can also be locally prolific, especially at higher elevations.

The duns are easily recognized by their speckled bodies and distinctive wings usually featuring a dark background overlaid with white veins. Female spinners are also easy to recognize with their clear wing's leading edges marked with dark blotches -- see the pictures.
Female Callibaetis ferrugineus (Baetidae) (Speckled Dun) Mayfly Dun from unknown in Wisconsin
Female Callibaetis ferrugineus (Baetidae) (Speckled Dun) Mayfly Spinner from the Flathead River-lower in Montana
These adults are probably C. ferrugineus.
Lateral view of a Callibaetis ferrugineus (Baetidae) (Speckled Dun) Mayfly Nymph from Mystery Creek #304 in Idaho
This nymph was one of a horde I could see cruising the still shallows of a cold tailwater, mixed in with an intense emergence of duns. It's one of four specimens I photographed together from the same hatch, also including a male dun, a female dun, and a male spinner.

This nymph keys to either Callibaetis ferrugineous or Callibaetis pallidus. The lack of a darkened preapical band on the femora would suggest pallidus, but I can't definitively make out the "single seta" on the outer, ventral apex of any of the tarsi, the length of which is supposedly a more reliable characteristic to tell the species spart. I can maybe make something out on one of the legs at the highest magnification, and its dimensions would suggest ferrugineous.

References

Grizzly Quills

Scientific Name
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