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Artistic view of a Male Pteronarcys californica (Pteronarcyidae) (Giant Salmonfly) Stonefly Adult from the Gallatin River in Montana
Pteronarcys californica

The giant Salmonflies of the Western mountains are legendary for their proclivity to elicit consistent dry-fly action and ferocious strikes.

Lateral view of a Clostoeca disjuncta (Limnephilidae) (Northern Caddisfly) Caddisfly Larva from the Yakima River in Washington
This one was surprisingly straightforward to identify. The lack of a sclerite at the base of the lateral hump narrows the field quite a bit, and the other options followed fairly obvious characteristics to Clostoeca, which only has one species, Clostoeca disjuncta.
27" brown trout, my largest ever. It was the sub-dominant fish in its pool. After this, I hooked the bigger one, but I couldn't land it.
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Mayfly Species Paraleptophlebia rufivenosa

Species Range

Physical description

Most physical descriptions on Troutnut are direct or slightly edited quotes from the original scientific sources describing or updating the species, although there may be errors in copying them to this website. Such descriptions aren't always definitive, because species often turn out to be more variable than the original describers observed. In some cases, only a single specimen was described! However, they are useful starting points.

Male Spinner

Body length: 7 mm
Wing length: 7 mm

This is a brownish species without distinct color pattern. The head and thorax and tip of the abdomen are dark brown; middle abdominal segments, legs, and tails paler brown. Wings with reddish longitudinal veins and with the cross veins also tinged except in the basal 3rd; most heavily in the stigmatic region, where the cross veins are oblique, rather crowded, and some of them forked. 9th sternite narrowly divided by a V-shaped notch. Forceps tapering rather regularly from base to apex, slightly corrugated internally; the 3rd segment as large as the 2nd. Penes separated for about half their length by a V-shaped notch that is rounded proximally; their outer margins parallel almost to the tip where a triangular tooth projects laterally. There is no reflexed spur and there is no apical tooth (see fig. 134).

Start a Discussion of Paraleptophlebia rufivenosa


  • Needham, James G., Jay R. Traver, and Yin-Chi Hsu. 1935. The Biology of Mayflies. Comstock Publishing Company, Inc.

Mayfly Species Paraleptophlebia rufivenosa

Species Range
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