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Artistic view of a Male Pteronarcys californica (Pteronarcyidae) (Giant Salmonfly) Stonefly Adult from the Gallatin River in Montana
Pteronarcys californica

The giant Salmonflies of the Western mountains are legendary for their proclivity to elicit consistent dry-fly action and ferocious strikes.

Dorsal view of a Zapada cinctipes (Nemouridae) (Tiny Winter Black) Stonefly Nymph from the Yakima River in Washington
Nymphs of this species were fairly common in late-winter kick net samples from the upper Yakima River. Although I could not find a key to species of Zapada nymphs, a revision of the Nemouridae family by Baumann (1975) includes the following helpful sentence: "2 cervical gills on each side of midline, 1 arising inside and 1 outside of lateral cervical sclerites, usually single and elongate, sometimes constricted but with 3 or 4 branches arising beyond gill base in Zapada cinctipes." This specimen clearly has the branches and is within the range of that species.
27" brown trout, my largest ever. It was the sub-dominant fish in its pool. After this, I hooked the bigger one, but I couldn't land it.
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Mayfly Species Callibaetis floridanus (Speckled Duns)

Where & when

In 6 records from GBIF, adults of this species have been collected during January (33%), May (17%), June (17%), December (17%), and July (17%).

In 4 records from GBIF, this species has been collected at elevations of 30, 197, 2854, and 3084 ft.

Species Range

Physical description

Most physical descriptions on Troutnut are direct or slightly edited quotes from the original scientific sources describing or updating the species, although there may be errors in copying them to this website. Such descriptions aren't always definitive, because species often turn out to be more variable than the original describers observed. In some cases, only a single specimen was described! However, they are useful starting points.

Female Spinner

Body length: 6 mm
Wing length: 7 mm

A uniformly ferruginous species; cross veins of fore wing few in number; marginal intercalaries single; male not known.

Thorax ferruginous. Femora thickly dotted with brown; 10 to 15 large dots on the middle line of each, as well as many smaller ones on each side. Tarsal joints brown apically. Cross veins of fore wing few, only about 20 behind the vitta; marginal intercalaries, in the type specimen, occur singly except at the tip. Costal brace red-brown, with a clear space immediately beyond; this is followed by U-shaped bars of brown. “Costa of wing unmarked; basal costal region hyaline, vitta pale brownish, broader at base, with about seven or eight small narrow indentations on hind edge, otherwise the edge is very regular" (Banks). Cross veins in middle of wing brownish. Hind wing relatively short for its width, the costal margin nearly straight on each side of the costal projection. Cross veins rather few in number; usually one well-developed intercalary only; veins 2 and 3 convergent toward the tip. Abdomen uniformly ferruginous; tails pale, narrowly brown at the joinings.

Start a Discussion of Callibaetis floridanus


Mayfly Species Callibaetis floridanus (Speckled Duns)

Species Range
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