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Lateral view of a Female Hexagenia limbata (Ephemeridae) (Hex) Mayfly Dun from the Namekagon River in Wisconsin
Hex Mayflies
Hexagenia limbata

The famous nocturnal Hex hatch of the Midwest (and a few other lucky locations) stirs to the surface mythically large brown trout that only touch streamers for the rest of the year.

Dorsal view of a Neoleptophlebia (Leptophlebiidae) Mayfly Nymph from the Yakima River in Washington
Some characteristics from the microscope images for the tentative species id: The postero-lateral projections are found only on segment 9, not segment 8. Based on the key in Jacobus et al. (2014), it appears to key to Neoleptophlebia adoptiva or Neoleptophlebia heteronea, same as this specimen with pretty different abdominal markings. However, distinguishing between those calls for comparing the lengths of the second and third segment of the labial palp, and this one (like the other one) only seems to have two segments. So I'm stuck on them both. It's likely that the fact that they're immature nymphs stymies identification in some important way.
27" brown trout, my largest ever. It was the sub-dominant fish in its pool. After this, I hooked the bigger one, but I couldn't land it.
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Early Black Quills

Like most common names,"Early Black Quill" can refer to more than one taxon. They're previewed below, along with 3 specimens. For more detail click through to the scientific names.

Mayfly Genus Leptophlebia

These are sometimes called Early Black Quills.
Leptophlebia mayflies do not generate superhatches, but their medium-large size and other properties make them a relevant part of the early season.

The information below was mostly discovered in Leptophlebia cupida, the most important species, but it is not known to differ in the others.
Lateral view of a Male Leptophlebia cupida (Leptophlebiidae) (Black Quill) Mayfly Dun from the Teal River in Wisconsin
This Leptophlebia cupida dun was extremely cooperative, and it molted into a spinner for me in front of the camera. Here I have a few dun pictures and one spinner picture, and I've put the entire molting sequence in an article.
Lateral view of a Female Leptophlebia cupida (Leptophlebiidae) (Black Quill) Mayfly Spinner from the Namekagon River in Wisconsin
Leptophlebia cupida (Leptophlebiidae) (Black Quill) Mayfly Nymph from the Namekagon River in Wisconsin

Mayfly Species Leptophlebia nebulosa

These are sometimes called Early Black Quills.

References

Early Black Quills

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